PART A: Structure
Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.


1- A few weeks later in Athens, Greene’s faith and preparation were rewarded when he set a new world record for the 100-meter dash ----------------- 45 precise and powerful strides in exactly 9.79 seconds.
 
 
 
 
2- Studying how the mind and brain work sounds like ----------------- to grab Handfuls of air.
 
 
 
 
3- ----------------- the fact that we can inherit in our genetic make-up certain basic physical reactions.
 
 
 
 
4- “Old Time is still a-flying.” -----------------, capturing the universal cliché that time flies.
 
 
 
 
5- People tend to equate aging with the diseases of aging—cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, arthritis and Alzheimer’s, to name a few ----------------- absence of disease would be enough to confer immortality.
 
 
 
 
6- Bell found that, overall, the women were not in as good shape as the men were ----------------- in both sexes.
 
 
 
 
7- The characteristics that most distinguish humans from other primates are largely the results of natural selection acting to improve the quality of the human diet -----------------.
 
 
 
 
8- The horse was probably domesticated by nomads in what is now Ukraine around 2700 B.C.E., but not until the invention of the horseshoe, the padded horse collar and the stirrup ----------------- indispensable for warfare, transport and agriculture.
 
 
 
 
9- When we remove the part that comes from the hypothetical foreground, the remaining cosmological contribution is likely to be even smaller than -----------------.
 
 
 
 
10- ----------------- you to play with toy Lego blocks to spark your creative juices.
 
 
 
 
PART B: Vocabulary
Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.


11- Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and sounding a warning at the approach of danger, and ----------------- outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.
 
 
 
 
12- Unlike a typical automobile loan, which requires a fifteen-to-twenty-percent ----------------- payment, a lease-loan does not require the buyer to make an initial deposit on the new vehicle.
 
 
 
 
13- As the Indian consumer has been exposed to high quality imported goods, she has sent an unmistakable ----------------- call to the Indian manufacturers to improve the quality of their goods or pay the price.
 
 
 
 
14- The book appears to be very ----------------- when you read its outer jacket and the back cover, but as you read it, you find that there is very little substance as it is far removed from practicality.
 
 
 
 
15- The Prime Minister has said that he ----------------- with those who have lost their dear ones in the explosion, and affirmed that the terrorists behind the dreadful ad will not be spared.
 
 
 
 
16- Because the testimony in the courtroom was ----------------- the judge asked the Defendant’s small children to remain outside in the hallway.
 
 
 
 
17- During his audition, Peter showed his vocal ----------------- by singing a song that revealed his ability to cover a wide range of notes.
 
 
 
 
18- The basic problem with the new manager is that he just does not know how to ----------------- responsibility to his juniors, and wants to do everything on his own.
 
 
 
 
19- After a trial before a special commission which was a/an ----------------- of justice—the accused was not permitted to have any legal assistance or the use of writing materials—he was condemned to decapitation and promptly executed.
 
 
 
 
20- As you know I am only a novice at sailing, so when I take the tiller, you should then be prepared for any -----------------.
 
 
 
 
21- Despite the mediator’s wish to ----------------- peace between the two warring countries, he was unable to get the sides to agree to a treaty.
 
 
 
 
22- While other companies seemed to fare poorly during the depression, the oil companies remained ----------------- and earned hefty profits.
 
 
 
 
23- We must try to devise some sort of scarecrow to save the cherries from the ----------------- of the starlings.
 
 
 
 
24- Surprisingly, last week’s ----------------- episode of the television show was more exciting than this week’s series finale.
 
 
 
 
25- The maid will use a chemical spray to ----------------- the mold from the shower walls.
 
 
 
 
26- Arbitration differs from mediation in so far as it is a judicial act, whereas mediation involves no decision, but merely advice and suggestions to those who ----------------- its aid.
 
 
 
 
27- This was followed, five days later, by a revolt of all the toast Arabs against German rule—the Germans, raw hands at the task of managing Orientals, having aroused intense hostility by their ----------------- treatment of the dispossessed rulers.
 
 
 
 
28- It is normal to forget things like an appointment or what day of the week it is, but you may have gone ----------------- if you forget how to dress and bath yourself.
 
 
 
 
29- It is hard to feel pity for someone who makes a living by willingly choosing to ----------------- their true intent for monetary reasons.
 
 
 
 
30- Schreiber also claims Mulroney’s attorneys later tried to induce him into ----------------- by asking that he sign an affidavit falsely stating that he had never paid any money to Mulroney.
 
 
 
 
PART C: Cloze Passage
Directions: Read the following passage and decide which choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) best fits each space. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.


Conscious experience is at once the most familiar thing in the world and the most mysterious. There is nothing (31) -----------------, but it is extraordinarily hard to reconcile it with everything else we know, why does it exist? What does it do? How could it possibly arise from neural processes in the brain? These questions are among the most intriguing (32) -----------------.
From an objective viewpoint, the brain is relatively (33) -----------------. When you look at this page, there is a whir of processing: photons (34) ----------------- your retina, electrical signals are passed up your optic nerve and between different areas of your brain, (35) ----------------- a perplexed frown or a remark. But there is also a subjective aspect. When you look at the page, you are conscious of it, directly experiencing the images and words as part of your private, menial life. You have (36) ----------------- impressions of the color and shapes of the images. At the same time, you may be feeling some emotions and (37) -----------------Together such experiences make up consciousness: the subjective, inner life of the mind.
For many years, consciousness was (38) ----------------- by researchers studying the brain and the mind, the prevailing view (39) -----------------, which depends on objectivity, could not accommodate something as subjective as consciousness. The behaviorist movement in psychology, dominant earlier in this century, concentrated on external behavior and disallowed any talk of (40) ----------------- mental processes.
Later, the rise of cognitive science focused attention on processes inside the head. Still, consciousness remained off-limits, fit only for light late-night discussion.


31-
 
 
 
 
32-
 
 
 
 
33-
 
 
 
 
34-
 
 
 
 
35-
 
 
 
 
36-
 
 
 
 
37-
 
 
 
 
38-
 
 
 
 
39-
 
 
 
 
40-
 
 
 
 
PART D: Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following three passages and decide which choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) best answers each question. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.


PASSAGE 1:

One especially compelling study was published in 1995, after Dinner and his daughter Marissa surveyed more than 13000 college students, and high self-esteem emerged as the strongest factor in overall life satisfaction. In 2004 Sonja Lyubomirsky, Christopher Tkach and M. Robin Dimatteo reported data from more than 600 adults ranging in age from 51 to 95. Once again, happiness and self-esteem proved to be closely tied. Before it is safe to conclude that high self-esteem leads to happiness, however, further research must address the shortcomings of the work that has been done so far.
First, causation needs to be established. It seems possible that high self-esteem brings about happiness but no research has shown this outcome. The strong correlation between self-esteem and happiness is just that—a correlation. It is plausible that occupational, academic, or interpersonal successes cause both happiness and high self-esteem and that corresponding failures cause both unhappiness and low self-esteem. It is even possible that happiness, in the sense of a temperament or disposition to feel good, induces high self-esteem.
Second, it must be recognized that happiness (and its apposite, depression) has been studied mainly by means of self-report, and the tendency of some people toward negativity may produce both their low opinions of themselves and unfavorable evaluations of other aspects of life. Yet it is not clear what could replace such assessments. An investigator would indeed be hard-pressed to demonstrate convincingly that a person was less (or more) happy than he or she supposed. Clearly, objective measures of happiness and depression are going to be difficult if not impossible to obtain, but that does not mean self-reports should be accepted uncritically.
What then should we do? Should parents, teachers and therapists seek to boost self-esteem wherever possible? In the course of our literature review, we found some indications that self-esteem is a helpful attribute. It improves persistence in the face of failure. And individuals with high self-esteem sometimes perform better in groups than do those with low self-esteem. Also, a poor self-image is a risk factor for certain eating disorders, especially bulimia—a connection one of us (Vohs) and her colleagues documented in 1999. Other effects are harder to demonstrate with objective evidence, although we are inclined to accept the subjective evidence that self-esteem goes hand in hand with happiness.
So we can certainly understand how an injection of self-esteem might be valuable to the individual. But imagine if a heightened sense of self-worth prompted some people to demand preferential treatment or to exploit their fellows. Such tendencies would entail considerable social costs. And we have found little to indicate that indiscriminately promoting self-esteem in today’s children or adults, just for being themselves, offers society any compensatory benefits beyond the seductive pleasure it brings to those engaged in the exercise.


41- Which of the following best describes the organization of the first three paragraphs?
 
 
 
 
42- Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards the research studies mentioned in paragraph 1?
 
 
 
 
43- Why does the author mention “occupational, academic or interpersonal successes” (paragraph 2)?
 
 
 
 
44- Which of the following best supports the author’s claim about the reliability of self-reports?
 
 
 
 
45- There is sufficient information in the passage to answer which of the following questions?

I. What theoretical justification prompted Sonja Lyubomirsky, Christopher Tkach and M. Robin DiMatteo to posit a relationship between self-esteem and happiness?

II. Why do some people who are subjected to self-reporting tend to express low opinions of themselves?

III. Should we disregard the promotion of self-esteem in individuals as a means to enhance their happiness?

IV. What makes it impossible to develop objective measures of happiness and depression?


 
 
 
 
46- What the author means by “Connection” in “a connection one of us (Vohs) and her colleagues documented in 1999” (paragraph 4) is a link between ----------------.
 
 
 
 
47- All of the following are true about “such tendencies” as they are used in the last paragraph EXCEPT they -------------------.
 
 
 
 

PASSAGE 2:

The old image of the child in the glass shell is misleading in more ways than one. It is incorrect to think that inside the glass shell is a normal individual waiting to emerge, nor is it true that autism is a disorder of childhood only. The motion picture Rain Man came at the right time to suggest a new image to a receptive public. Here we see Raymond, a middle-aged man who is unworldly, egocentric in the extreme and all too amenable to manipulation by others. He is incapable of understanding his brother’s double-dealing pursuits, transparently obvious though they are to the cinema audience. Through various experiences it becomes possible for the brother to learn from Raymond and to forge an emotional bond with him. This is not a farfetched story. We can learn a great deal about ourselves through the phenomenon of autism.
Yet the illness should not be romanticized. We must see autism as a devastating handicap without a cure. The autistic child has a mind that is unlikely to develop self-consciousness. But we can now begin to identify the particular types of social behavior and emotional responsiveness of which autistic individuals are capable. Autistic people can learn to express their needs and to anticipate the behavior of others when it is regulated by external, observable factors rather than by mental states. They can form emotional attachments to others. They often strive to please and earnestly wish to be instructed in the rules of person-to-person contact. There is no doubt that within the stark limitations a degree of satisfying sociability can be achieved.
Autistic aloneness does not have to mean loneliness. The chilling aloofness experienced by many parents is not a permanent feature of their growing autistic child. In fact, it often gives way to a preference for company. Just as it is possible to engineer the environment toward a blind person’s needs or toward people with other special needs, so the environment can be adapted to an autistic person’s needs.
On the other hand, one must be realistic about the degree of adaptation that can be made by the limited person. We can hope for some measure of compensation and a modest ability to cope with adversity. We cannot expect autistic individuals to grow out of the unreflecting mind they did not choose to be born with. Autistic people in turn can look for us to be more sympathetic to their plight as we better understand how their minds are different from ours.


48- What is the best title for the passage?
 
 
 
 
49- Which of the following is TRUE about Raymond?
 
 
 
 
50- Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards Rain Man?
 
 
 
 
51- It can be inferred from the passage that autistic children -------------------.
 
 
 
 
52- According to the passage, the aloofness exhibited by autistic children ................... .

I. can be alleviated to a certain degree

II. does not prevent them from wanting to learn the rules of sociability

III. is misconstrued by many parents as an unchanging mark in such children’s lives

IV. stems in part from others’ proclivity for avoiding them and ignoring their social needs


 
 
 
 
53- Which of the following best describes the function of the last paragraph in relation to the paragraph preceding it in the passage?
 
 
 
 
54- Where in the passage has the author used an analogy?
 
 
 
 

PASSAGE 3:

Typically, conventional intelligence tests correlate about 0.4 to 0.6 (on a 0 to 1 scale) with school grades, which statistically speaking is a respectable level of correlation. A test that predicts performance with a correlation of 0.5, however, accounts for only about 25 percent of the variation in individual performances, leaving 75 percent of the variation unexplained. Thus, there has to be much more to school performance than IQ.
The predictive validity of the tests declines when they are used to forecast outcomes in later life, such as job performance, salary or even obtaining a job in the first place. Generally, the correlations are only a bit over 03, meaning that the tests account for roughly 10 percent of variation in people’s performance. That means 90 percent of the variation is unexplained. Moreover, IQ prediction become less effective once populations, situations or tasks change. For instance, Fred Fiedler found that IQ positively predicts leadership success under conditions of low stress. But in high-stress situations, the tests negatively predict success. Some intelligence tests, including both the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler, can yield multiple scores. But can prediction be improved?
Curiously, whereas many kinds of technologies, such as computers and communications, have moved forward in leaps and bounds in the U.S. around the world, intelligence testing remains almost a lone exception. The content of intelligence tests differs little from that used at the turn of the century. Edwin E. Chiselli, an American industrial psychologist, wrote an article in 1966 bemoaning how little the predictive value of intelligence tests had improved in 40 years. More than 50 years later the situation remains unchanged.
We can do better. In research with Michael Ferrari of the University of Pittsburgh, Pamela R. Clinkenbeard of the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater and Elena L. Grigorenko of Yale University, I showed that a test that measured not only the conventional memory and analytical abilities but also creative and practical thinking abilities could improve prediction of course grades for high school students in an introductory psychology course. (A direct comparison of correlations between this test and conventional tests is not possible because of the restricted sample, which consisted of high-ability students selected by their schools.)
In these broader tests, individuals had to solve mathematical problems with newly defined operators (for example, X glick Y = X + Y if X < Y, and X - Y if X3 V), which require a more flexible kind of thinking. And they were asked to plan routes on maps and to solve problems related to personal predicaments, which require a more everyday, practical kind of thinking.


55- What is the passage mainly concerned with?
 
 
 
 
56- Why does the author refer to “variation” in paragraph 1?
 
 
 
 
57- Which of the following best describes the function of paragraph 2 in relation to paragraph 1?
 
 
 
 
58- According to the passage, it is true that ------------------.
 
 
 
 
59- The parenthetical information in paragraph 4 is a --------------------.
 
 
 
 
60- Which of the following best represents the author’s attitude toward the future of intelligence testing?
 
 
 
 

 

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