PART A: Grammar
Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.

1- A paper published online last year in Behavioral and Brain Sciences by Jose L. Duarte and his colleagues’ attempts to organize ----------.
2- Philosophers long ago suggested that awe binds people together -------------------, an Assistant professor of psychology and social behavior at the University of California, Irvine.
3- --------------, but it gave her much needed time to refocus and heal.
4- Every Mirus transfection product is the result of intensive scientific discovery and development facilitated by a team of chemists and biologists ----------------- the very best transfection reagents in the world.
5- Networks have come into their own at precisely the same time that the world is going through a wave of free-market reforms, -------------.
6- The practices of creating signature science artifacts, playing with identities, and negotiating new rules for participation ---------------- integral components of school science, resulting in what we refer to as new hybrid spaces.
7- A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restricts to a computer to those people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person’s signature by analyzing not only the form of signature --------------------.
8- ----------------, the language of James Merrill is chatty, arch, and conversational — given to complex syntactic flights as well as prosaic free-verse strolls.
9- In his study of television advertising, Geis found that although proper nouns are generally thought to have strictly a referring function, the choice of lexical items used to construct the names of products advertised could result in the name itself ----------------- impact.
10- In a certain population, there are 3 times ----------------- twenty-one or under as there are people over twenty-one.
PART B: Vocabulary
Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.

11- The chairperson was not noted for being ---------------; on the contrary, the members praised her flexibility.
12- Though Socrates was ---------------- by his students who found truth in his teachings, his philosophy constituted a menace to the existent government.
13- Much to the ---------------- of her parents, Stephanie, who was only eighteen, announced her engagement to a man twice her age.
14- The sale of -------------- books and related items increased dramatically as the popularity of television cooking shows ruse.
15- The Williams’ basement was ---------------- even before the rainy winter season.
16- More than that, they had left him physically exhausted and mentally ---------------- by all these stupid lesions, besieged by boredom and mediocrity.
17- The award-winning actress is known for her snobby attitude and would never ---------------- to appear in a low-budget film.
18- In the film, the wife did everything she could to make sure her ------------------- about her husband’s death did not come true.
19- With the close of the semester rapidly approaching, and the philosophy of Slacktivism threatening to leave us with -----------------, empty calls-to-action, we must continue to actively engage within our community to seek the change we need most.
20- His --------------- remarks were certainly not necessary, as the crowd was already emotionally charged.
21- Police use “scared straight” strategies with at-risk youth, inculcating them with lessons related to the negative consequences of their actions, and instilling the fear of -----------------.
22- The changing of the seasons is an ----------------- event because there is nothing you can do to stop one season from leading into another.
23- The thriller is about a young man who ---------------- himself into a millionaire’s empire by assuming different identities.
24- The increase in the ----------------- he gets in the new job is adequate to help him further his education, which is expensive these days.
25- Ted finally managed to get over his initial ------------------ at Susan’s refusal to accept the job.
26- Tourists were shocked and saddened to see the ------------------ huts where the residents of the island lived.
27- For some courses, all that is necessary to receive good grades is to memorize and then ---------------- facts, figures, or definitions.
28- He has been no stranger to controversy and ----------------- during a tumultuous political career.
29- The two brothers were known to ----------------- both words and loving punches, but they never came to serious blows.
30- ROY G. BIV is a ----------------- used to remember all of the colors in the rainbow; red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
PART C: Cloze Test
Directions: Read the following passage and decide which choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) best fits each space. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.

Alexa felt a prickle of apprehension in the pit of her stomach as she stepped into the rickety old vehicle. The adults settled into the first two rows of seats, while Alexa and Doug were (31) .................... to the far back.
“Hey, at least we won’t be constrained by seat belts,” Doug joked, (32), ..................... He looked as If he was enjoying the adventure,
“You can have the window seat,” he offered. “l sat by the window on the airplane.”
“Thanks,” Alexa said sincerely, touched by his magnanimous gesture.
As soon as the passengers (33) ---------------- into their seats, the van took off with a jerk and made its way outside the confines of the city, (34) -------------------. The ride became bumpy and uncomfortable as the driver (35) ------------------ the roadway, rife with potholes.
Alexa kept her gaze (36) ------------------They meandered through a quaint little town with a beautiful Spanish-style church in the central square and a farmer’s market, (37) -------------with activity. But the next town wasn’t nearly as attractive. The small, makeshift houses looked as if they would (38) ------------------- down in a strong breeze. Alexa felt it rush of empathy when she saw (39) ------------------ holding her infant. It was clear from her tattered clothes that she was living in privation.
As the van continued west, the towns became farther and farther apart, the road conditions became increasingly treacherous (40) ------------------.
“Now I know how popcorn feels when the popper gets hot,” Doug joked, as their vehicle bounced through the abundant potholes and gullies in the road.

PART D: Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following three passages and decide which choke (1), (2), (3), or (4) best answers each question. Then, mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.


As the previous two sections have demonstrated, the comparative method relies quite heavily on linguistic evidence to establish genetic relationships among languages.
However, non-linguistic evidence, such as historical information and archeological evidence, can supplement linguistic evidence to help in the classification of languages, especially to help date the origins of proto-languages for which no linguistic evidence exists. The farther back in time one goes, the more sketchy historical information about languages and their speakers becomes. This explains why we know so little about either Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Germanic. In the case of Proto-Indo-European, while the reconstruction of this language has, as Olson (2003: 142) comments provided considerable information concerning how speakers of PIE lived, we currently have no hard evidence about “when and where time people lived,” For this reason, we can only guess when this language might have initially been spoken, who spoke it, and how migration of PIE speakers led to the development of sub-families of PIE (e.g. Proto-Germanic). Dixon (1997:48) states that although the common consensus is that PIE began around 6,000 years ago, he notes that others have provided evidence that the language could have originated up to 10,500 years ago.
We can also only speculate about where PIE was initially spoken. The most widely accepted view of the origins of PIE is the Kurgan Hypothesis, which was originally proposed by the archeologist Marija Gimbutas (1956). This hypothesis places the original speakers of PIE just north of the Black Sea c. 6,000 years ago. Through a series of migrations, these speakers spread their language all the way to Europe, spawning over time the various sibling languages of PIE, including Proto-Germanic. Archeological and linguistic evidence suggests that original speakers of PIE were warriors who rode horses as they made their way to Europe. An alternative but much less widely accepted hypothesis is Renfrew’s (1987) farming-dispersal hypothesis.

41- Which of following is most probably the topic of the paragraph immediately following this passage?
42- Which of the following does the passage suggest as the primary source of evidence to establish genetic relationships?
43- It can be understood from the passage that the view according to which PIE began up to 10,500 years ago is a view which ---------------.
44- According to the passage, Proto-Germanic is -------------------.
45- According to the passage, it is NOT true that ----------------.
46- Which of the following best reveals the author’s attitude about the controversy regarding the origin of PIE and its sibling languages?

Intelligence has always been tricky to quantify, not least because if seems to involve most of the brain and so is almost certainly not one “thing”. Even so, stores across different kinds of IQ tests have long shown that people who do particularly well-or badly-on one seem to do similarly on all. This can be crunched into a single general intelligence factor, or “g”, which correlates pretty well with academic success, income, health and life span.
So more intelligence is clearly a good thing, but where does it come from? A large part of the answer seems to be genetics. In 1990, the first twin studies showed that the IQ scores of identical twins raised apart are more similar to each other than those of non-identical twins raised together. Since then a few genes have been linked to IQ, but all of them seem to have a tiny effect and there are probably thousands of genes involved.
That doesn’t mean the environment plays no part, at least in childhood. While the brain is developing, everything from diet to education and stimulation plays a huge part in developing the brain structures needed for intelligent thought. Children with a bad diet never fulfill their genetic potential.
But even for educated and well-fed children, the effects of environment wear off over time. By adulthood genes account for 60 to 80 percent of the variance in intelligence scores, compared with less than 50 percent in young children. Whether we like it or not, we get more like our close family members the older we get.
So if genes play such a big part, is there anything adults can do to improve IQ? The good news is that one type of intelligence keeps on improving throughout life. Most researchers distinguish between fluid intelligence, which measures the ability to reason, learn and spot patterns, and crystallized intelligence, the sum of all our knowledge so far. Fluid intelligence slows down with age, but crystallized intelligence doesn’t. So while we all get a little slower to the party as we get older, we can rest assured that we are still getting cleverer.

47- What is the best title for the passage?
48- What does the word “all” in paragraph 1 refer to?
49- The author mentions the twin studies in paragraph 2 mostly in order to ---------------.
50- The word “those” in paragraph 2 refers to ---------------.
51- Which of the following is TRUE about the effect of genetics on intelligence, according to the passage?
52- Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards the attempts an adult can make to improve their intelligence?
53- The passage provides sufficient information to answer which of the following questions?

Learning is what your brain does naturally. In fact, it has been doing it even waking minute since about a month before you were born. It is the process by which you acquire and store useful (and useless) information and skills. Can you make it more efficient?
The answer lies in what happens physically as we learn. As it processes information, the brain makes and breaks connections, growing and strengthening the synapses that connect neurons to their neighbors, or shrinking them back. When we are actively learning, the making of new connections outweighs the breaking of old ones. Studies in rats have shown that this rewiring process can happen very quickly—within hours of learning a skill such as reaching through a hole to get a food reward. And in some parts of the brain, notably the hippocampus, the brain grows new brain cells as it learns.
But once a circuit is in place, it needs to be used if it is going to stick. This largely comes down to myelination—the process whereby a circuit that is stimulated enough times grows a coat of fatty membrane. This membrane increases conduction speed, making the circuit work more efficiently.
What, then, is the best way to learn things and retain them? The answer won’t come as a huge surprise to anyone who has been to school: focus attention, engage working memory and then, a bit later, actively try to recall it.
Alan Baddeley of the University of York, UK, says It is a good idea to test yourself in this way as it causes your brain to strengthen the new connection. He also suggests consciously trying to link new bits of information to what you already know. That makes the connection more stable in the brain and less likely to waste away through underuse.
The learning process carries on for life, so why is it so much harder to learn when we reach adulthood? The good news is that there seems to be no physiological reason for the slowdown. Instead, it seems to be a lot to do with the fact that we simply spend less time learning stuff, and when we do, don’t do it with the same potent mix of enthusiasm and attention as the average child.
Part of the problem seems to be that adults know too much. Research by Gabriele Wulf at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, has shown that adults tend to learn a physical skill, like hitting a golf ball, by focusing on the details of the movement. Children, however, don’t sweat the details, but experiment in getting the ball to go where they want. When Wulf taught adults to learn more like kids, they picked up skills much faster.
This also seems to be true for learning information. As adults we have a vast store of mental shortcuts that allow us to skip over details. But we still have the capacity to learn new things in the same way as children, which suggests that if we could resist the temptation to cut corners, we would probably learn a lot more.
A more tried-and-tested method is to keep active. Ageing leads to the loss of brain tissue, but this may have a lot to do with how little we hare about compared to youngsters. With a little exercise, the brain can spring back to life. In one study, 40 minutes of exercise three times a week for a year increased the size of the hippocampus—which is crucial for learning and memory. It also improved connectivity across the brain, making it easier for new things to stick.

54- The main purpose of the passage is to -----------------.
55- The word “them” in paragraph 2 refers to -----------------.
56- Which of the following is TRUE about the rewiring process mentioned in the passage?
57- Which of the following best describes Alan Gabriele Wulf’s attitude towards a person’s endeavor to begin learning a new skill late in life?
58- Which of the following contentions is best supported by the information contained in the passage?
59- Which of the following words is the word “hare” in the last paragraph most related to?
60- Which of the following best represents the main rhetorical function of the passage?