PART A. Grammar
Directions: Select the best answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank in the following questions. Then mark your answer sheet.

1- The millipede Nano-drive prototype operates like a tiny phonograph, using the sharp tips of minuscule silicon cantilevers -----------------.
2- Will the procedures used for fabricating electronic devices four decades down the road look -----------------?
3- The study of small vessel growth—a phenomenon referred to generally as angiogenesis—has such potential for providing new therapies ----------------- and has received enthusiastic interest from the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.
4- Advances in golf halls, javelins, speed skates and tennis rackets have so improved performance that occasionally they have had to be regulated or banned ----------------- the fundamental human challenge that defines a game.
5- What ----------------- that human variation confounds the predictive validity of most sports psychology models.
6- The hikers climbed steadily in near darkness for over an hour, reaching the apex of the hill just in time -----------------.
7- Affording strategic proximity to the Strait of Gibraltar, Morocco was also of interest to the French throughout the first half of the twentieth century because they assumed -----------------.
8- Lawmakers have proposed legislation requiring ---------------- indefinitely or show just cause dismissal.
9- As rainfall began to decrease in the Southwest about the middle of the twelfth century, most of the Monument Valley Anasazi abandoned their homes to join other clans -----------------.
10- Spanning over more than 50 years, Friedrich ----------------- a Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that European governments and learned societies could bestow.
PART B. Vocabulary
Directions: Select the best answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank in the following questions. Then mark your answer sheet.

11- The guest lecturer in Professor Zito’s class, “Tupac Shakur and the Modern World,” was so ----------------- that most of the students could barely follow his thesis, and some even walked out in the middle.
12- The ----------------- hyenas devoured the remains of the wildebeest left by the lion.
13- “The Great Cham” is a ----------------- used variously for the Khan of the Tartary region in Asia and for the eighteenth-century writer and dictionary maker- Samuel Johnson.
14- Suggestions of inferiority have long ----------------- in a city where image has been an obsession for more than a century.
15- Slander and libel laws stand as a protection of an individual's reputation against irresponsible of falsehood.
16- I endeavored to make my newspaper both entertaining and useful, and it accordingly came to be in such demand, that I reaped considerable profit from it, ----------------- annually near ten thousand.
17- The Army Corps of Engineers distributed 26 million plastic bags throughout the region. Volunteers filled each hag with 35 pounds of sand and then stacked them to create levees, ----------------- barriers against the floodwaters.
18- Most natural hazards can be detected before their threat matures. But seisms (from the Greek seismos, earthquake) have no known so they come without warning, like the vengeance of an ancient warrior.
19- The concerto was too ----------------- and elaborate for the audience’s taste, for they were expecting a much more simple piece.
20- The child’s interest ----------------- because she is fickle and not used to concentrating on one task at a time.
21- The reference, in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar to “the clock striking twelve” is -----------------, since there were no striking timepieces in ancient Rome.
22- The train crash was blamed on a switchman who was -----------------, having fallen asleep while on duty.
23- No politician in America today will openly ----------------- racism, although some behave and speak in racially prejudiced ways.
24- The ----------------- character of the 1890s wore bright-colored spats and a top hat; in the 1980s, he wore fancy suspenders and a shirt with a contrasting collar.
25- The angry townspeople had begun a/an ----------------- bordering on downright revolution; they were collecting arms, holding secret meetings, and refusing to pay certain taxes.
26- Witnessing this insolent command, I had to ----------------- use all my stores of discipline to a surge of ----------------- him.
27- For Dad, I found a device that ----------------- when calls are from telemarketers and automatically hangs up on them. Dad’s love of gadgets is directly proportional to his animosity toward telemarketers, so the gift couldn't have been more -----------------.
28- Jaden --------------- all the forbearance he could ------------------ so as not to rebuke me for the inane decision that I had made after having been given ample time to think of a feasible solution.
29- Drew’s jaw dropped in ------------- at having his very first speech ------------- so abruptly.
30- I would describe him as, “A wonderful, joyous mouth that could laugh and grin and smile in a hundred expressions of precious, life-giving ------------.”
PART C. Cloze Passage
Directions: Select the number of the answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes each blank in the following passage. Then mark your answer sheet.

While the four travelers passed safely through the rest of the woods, the Lion proudly (31) ------------- the others with a narrative, (32) ------------- gory, macabre details. explaining how he annihilated the monster. The gruesome images disturbed Dorothy, but at the same time (33) -------------- the Lion in such fine (34) ------------. Just when her stomach could take no more, they came out into the light and (35) ------------, covered from top to bottom with large rocks. “That will be a hard climb,” said the Scarecrow, but we must get over the hill, (36) -------------.
He starred up the difficult path and the others followed. They had nearly reached the first rock when they heard a belligerent sounding voice (37) ------------- cry out. “Back?” Then a head (38) ------------- over the rock and the same voice said. “This hill belongs to us, and we don’t allow anyone to cross it.”
“But we must cross it,” said the Scarecrow. “We’re going to the country of the Quadlings.”
“You shall not!” replied the voice (39) -------------. and there stepped from behind the rock the strangest man the travelers had ever seen.
He was quite short and rotund and had a big head, which was flat at the top and supported by a thick neck full of wrinkles. But he had no arms at all, and the Scarecrow didn’t see how their climb up the hill (40) -------------.

PART D. Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four passages and select the number of the answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best answers each question. Then mark your answer sheet.

Passage 1:

For centuries oceanographers have snatched clues to ocean currents where they could. Early ideas about the speed and direction of currents often came from stray objects that floated and drifted for years —sealed bottles, rafts, the gloomy, waterlogged hulks of abandoned ships called derelicts. These days a host of ingenious instruments delivers intriguing news of the origins and routes of water. Perhaps the single most useful instrument for physical oceanographers is the CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) recorder, which measures salinity and temperature of a particular mass of seawater at various depths. Identifying these properties is key to determining how, where, and when currents move.

41- As presented in the opening sentence, the task of the oceanographers is most similar to that of ------------------.
42- Lines 4-5 (“These days ... water”) serve primarily to ------------------.
Passage 2:

Many professional musicians receive conservatory training in order to become well-grounded in formal theory and instrumental technique; however, when we approach jazz we are entering quite a different sphere of training. Here it is more meaningful to speak of apprenticeship, ordeals, initiation ceremonies, and rebirth. For after the jazz musician has learned the fundamentals of an instrument and the standard techniques of jazz, such as intonations and traditional styles, the musicians must find his or her soul. All this through achieving that subtle identification between the instrument and the musician’s deepest drives, which will allow for the expression of each artist’s distinctive voice.

43- The word “which” in line 7 refers to ----------------.
44- Which generalization about jazz is most directly supported by the passage?
45- The last sentence (“All voice”) primarily emphasizes which point about jazz?
Passage 3:

Do we all have the capacity for synesthesia or is the brain’s ability to blend senses bestowed on a select few at birth? It now seems it could be a mixture of the two.
Synesthesia seems to underpin some savants’ enhanced memory and numerical skills. The hope is that a better understanding of its origins could help to explain savant abilities — and perhaps even shine some light on whether we are all capable of attaining them.
The condition is thought to arise when extra connections in the brain cross between regions responsible for separate senses. To see if genes play a role in building or maintaining these connections, a team led by Julian Asher at the University of Oxford took genetic. samples from 196 individuals from 43 families, 121 of whom exhibited auditory-visual synesthesia, meaning they “see” sounds. When I hear a violin, I see something like a rich red liquid," says Asher, who is a synaesthete. “A cello is more like honey.”
From their analysis, the team were able to pin down four chromosomal regions where gene variations seemed to be linked to the condition. As one of the regions has also been associated with autism, there may be a common genetic mechanism underlying the two, says Asher.
So if we are genetically disposed to develop synesthesia. does that rule out the possibility of inducing the experience? To find out, Roi Cohen Kadosh from Imperial College of London and colleagues hypnotized four volunteers so that they viewed numbers as having innate colors, known as grapheme-color synesthesia. The volunteers then looked at a series of colored slides, some with a black digit in the center and some without.
Like people with synesthesia, roughly 80 per cent of the time the hypnotized volunteers failed to see the digits when the background color corresponded to the color they associated with a number. Controls who had not been placed under a trance, but were instructed to attach a color to each number, did not make this mistake.
“It shows that even without hyperconnectivity in the brain, you can still have synesthesia,” says Cohen Kadosh. He says hypnosis may reactivate connections that had been suppressed by the brain.
Julia Simner from the University of Edinburgh, UK, has further evidence that synesthesia is not the result of neural connections fixed before birth. She studied 615 6-to 7-year olds, eight of whom turned out to be grapheme-color synaesthetes. Over the course of a year, these children gradually associated more letters with colors, showing that the ability developed with time.
So should we all attempt to develop savant-like abilities? “Synesthesia is strongly linked to improved memory capabilities so it would definitely be a good thing to research,” says Shriner. Asher is more cautious, stressing that synesthesia is often distracting, for example, while reading or listening to a lecture. He hopes to develop a genetic test to diagnose children and warn teachers of potential difficulties.

46- The primary purpose of the passage is to ------------------.
47- All of the following are TRUE about Julian Asher and her team EXCEPT that --------------.
48- What does the ward “Controls” in line 23 refer to?
49- It Can be inferred from the passage that the connections in the brain across between regions responsible for separate senses ---------------.
50- The question posed in the last paragraph in the passage assumes that ----------------.
51- Which of the following best represents the relationship between the research results arrived at by Roi Cohen Kadosh and the general assertion made in the first paragraph?
52- The passage indicates that school children possessed of synesthesia ------------------.
53- What is the tone of the passage?
Passage 4:

Discussions about ocean and global warming tend to focus on the threat of rising sea levels or the possibility that hotter tropical waters might spawn more frequent typhoons. But one also needs to remember that, in a fundamental sense, the oceans are important allies in the struggle against troubling climatic change. Of all the heat-trapping carbon dioxide that is released into the atmosphere every year from tailpipes and smokestacks, about a third goes into the sea, which scientists therefore recognize as an important “sink” for this gas.
The carbon dioxide dissolves in the shallow layers of the ocean. where, thankfully, it cannot contribute to warming the atmosphere. Much of the carbon transferred in this way is used by phytoplankton, the ubiquitous microscopic plants that grow near the surface of the water. After these short-lived organisms die, some of the carbon in their tissues sinks to great depth, Climatologists call this process the “biological pump” because it draws carbon out of the atmosphere and stores it deep in the sea. Naturally enough, some people have pondered whether this phenomenon could be artificially enhanced. This tactic would be the marine equivalent of planting more trees to isolate carbon in a form that does not contribute to greenhouse warming.
One researcher closely associated with this concept is the late John H. Martin of Moss Landing Marine Laboratories in California. Martin and his colleagues were aware that large oceanic regions contain high levels of nitrate (a normally scarce nutrient) but show low concentrations of the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll. That combination was curious: with abundant nitrate to fertilize their growth, tiny marine plants should multiply rapidly, greening the sea with chlorophyll. Yet vast high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas can be found in the equatorial and northern Pacific and over large stretches of the southern oceans.
Martin and his co-workers knew that the growth of phytoplankton in these places was not limited by any of the major nutrients—nitrate, silicate or phosphate. They believed that the deficiency of a trace element, iron, was curbing the growth of phytoplankton, because experiments with cultures had shown that adding a dash of iron to water taken from these areas boosts its ability to support the growth of common types of phytoplankton.
They reasoned that this connection between iron and plant growth, if it indeed operated the same way in the ocean, would have profound consequences. For example, it could explain why carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere were much lower during the last ice age; iron carried in dust blown off the cold, dry continents of the time would have fostered the growth of marine phytoplankton, which then acted to pump carbon from the atmosphere to the seafloor. When the continents became warmer and wetter at the end of the Pleistocene (roughly 10,000 years ago), the land gave off less dust to ocean-bound winds, robbing some marine phytoplankton of the iron needed for growth.
Although this argument was compelling, many other theories could also explain past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. To impress on some of his skeptical colleagues the importance of iron as a plant nutrient, Martin jokingly proclaimed in a lecture in 1988 that adding even modest amounts of iron in the right places could spur the growth of enough phytoplankton to draw much of the heat-absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. His often quoted jest “Give me a half a tanker of iron, and I’ll give you an ice age” foreshadowed more serious considerations of actually using this approach to help cool the planet.

54- The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
55- The word “it” in line 29 refers to ---------------.
56- Which of the following best describes the function of paragraph 2 in relation to paragraph 1?
57- According to the passage, the oceans are an important ally in the fight against global warming in that they -------------.
58- Where does in the passage does the write draw an analogy?
59- The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?

I. Why does the carbon dioxide dissolved in the shallow layers in the ocean not contribute to global warming?
II. How did Martin and his co-workers come to know that nitrate, silicate or phosphate are not a detriment to the growth of phytoplanktori?
III. Why did Martin and his co-workers believe that deficiency of iron was linked to the growth of phytoplankton?
IV. Is there a hypothetical answer to the question of why carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere were much lower during the last ice age?
60- According to the passage, during the last ice age .............. .