Part A: Grammar
Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3) or (4) that best completes each sentence. Then mark the answer on your answer sheet.

1- This caution is understandable, particularly ------------------- five years.
2- -----------------, the match had to be canceled.
3- Plant disease, ----------------- ruined most of the crops.
4- Mr. Hill decided to offer the position to Henry, -------------------.
5- ----------------- equipment is, it won’t produce the desired results.
6- Not until the thief left the house, ----------------- him although they were at home.
7- A car is much better than a bicycle ---------------------.
8- A giant kind of grass, bamboo may reach a diameter of one foot and ----------------.
9- Hit on the head by one of the assailants, ----------------.
10- ---------------- they are hot beverages.
Part B: Vocabulary
Directions: Choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3) or (4) that best completes each sentence. Then mark the answer on your answer sheet.

11- Oil companies have been accused of ---------------- in the pollution of the ocean.
12- An elected committee will meet monthly to ----------------- the council’s energy policy.
13- Many scholars were burned at the stake in the Middle Ages for -----------------.
14- The new law removed the last ------------------ of royal power.
15- His speech was just a collection of clichés and ------------------.
16- There are lots of really ------------------ apartments in the city’s poorer areas.
17- The two states are ---------------- with each other, but the laws are quite different.
18- The magazine appeals to many readers as it carries a(n) ----------------- mixture of high fashion, gossip, and racing.
19- They adopted proper learning strategies to ------------------ the learning process.
20- Senator Bryant attempted to ----------------- support for the measure against abortion.
21- Due to the unexpected rise in the foreign currency and devaluation in the country, business has become -----------------.
22- He was cleared of the charge of theft and ----------------- as head of security.
23- I tripped on a stone and went ---------------- on the pavement.
24- Bright-light therapy is used as a(n) ------------------ for sunshine, but their effects are not the same.
25- Scientists are ----------------- of making a major new discovery about the beginning of the universe.
26- The Conservatives won ------------------- the division of the opposition between the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats.
27- I’ve personally never ---------------- the view that either gender is superior to the other.
28- I keep trying to get Bob to come to the library with us, but it’s just ------------------ because he says he hates reading.
29- If something that you say is -----------------, you do not intend it to be considered as official.
30- The ---------------- began at 5 a.m. and they reached the peak of the mountain at noon.
Part C: Cloze Test
Directions: Read the following passage and choose the word or phrase (1), (2), (3) or (4) that best fits each gap. Then mark the answer on your answer sheet.

for centuries, people have speculated over the origins of human language. What is the world’s oldest spoken language? Have all languages developed from a/an (31) ---------------- source? What was the language spoken in the Garden of Eden? How did swords come (32) -------------, in the very beginning? These questions are fascinating, and (33) ---------------- experiments and discussion whose history (34) ----------------- back 3,000 years. The irony is that the (35) ---------------- is a fruitless one. Each generation asks the same questions, and reaches the same (36) --------------- —the absence of any evidence relating to the matter, (37) ------------------ the vast, distant time-scale involved. We have no direct knowledge of the origins and early development of language. (38) ----------------- easy to imagine how such knowledge might ever be obtained. We can only speculate, arrive at our own conclusions, and remain dissatisfied. Indeed, (39) ------------------ was one group of 19th-century scholars that they took drastic action: in 1866, the Linguistic Society of Paris published a/an (40) ------------- banning discussion of the topic at their meetings. But the theorizing continues, and these days there is a resurgence of interest, as new archeological finds and modern techniques of analysis provide fresh hints of what may once have been.

PART D: Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following three passages and choose the number of the answer choice (1), (2), (3) or (4) that best answers each question. Then mark the answer on your answer sheet.

Passage 1:

The spectacular and famous eruptions of Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park do not occur like clockwork. Before the earthquake of 1959, eruptions came every 60 to 65 minutes; today they are as little as 30 minutes or as much as 90 minutes apart. Changes in weather and in atmospheric pressure can influence the regularity of the eruptions and the height of the column. The geyser usually gives a warning: a short burst of steam. Then a graceful jet of water and steam rises up to 150 feet in the air, unfurling in the sunlight with the colors of the rainbow playing across it.
The eruption is only the visible part of the spectacle. In order for a geyser to erupt, there are three necessary ingredients: a heat source, a water supply, and a plumbing system. In the geyser fields of Yellowstone, a steady supply of heat is provided by hot spots of molten rock as little as two miles below the surface. The water supply of Old Faithful comes from groundwater and rainfall, but other geysers in Yellowstone are located on river banks. Geysers have various types of plumbing systems. Geologists studying Old Faithful theorized that it had a relatively simple one consisting of an underground reservoir connected to the surface by a long, narrow tube. In 1992 a probe equipped with a video camera and heat sensors was lowered into the geyser and confirmed the existence of a deep, narrow shaft and of a cavern, about the size of a large automobile, about 45 feet beneath the surface.
As water seeps into Old Faithful’s underground system, it is heated at the bottom like water in a teakettle. But while water in a teakettle rises because of convection, the narrow tube of the plumbing system prevents free circulation. Thus, the water in the upper tube id far cooler than the water at the bottom. The weight of the water puts pressure on the column, and this raises the boiling point of the water near the bottom. Finally, the confirmed superheated water rises, and the water in the upper part of the column warms and expands, some of it welling out of the mouth of the geyser. This abruptly decreases the pressure on the superheated water, and sudden, violent boiling occurs throughout much of the length of the tube, producing a tremendous amount of steam and forcing the water out of the vent in a superheated mass. This is the eruption, and it continues until the water reservoir is emptied or the steam runs out.
There are two main types of geysers. A fountain geyser water out in various directions through a pool. A columnar geyser such as Old Faithful shoots water in a fairly narrow jet from a conical formation at the mouth of the geyser that looks like a miniature volcano.

41- It can be inferred from the passage that the earthquake of 1959 made Old Faithful geyser erupt -----------------.
42- Why does the author mention a rainbow in paragraph 1?
43- It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would be LEAST likely to cause any change in Old Faithful’s eruptions?
44- The passage implies that Old Faithful would probably not erupt at all if ---------------.
45- The author implies that, compared to Old Faithful, many other geysers --------------.
46- The author mentions the probe that was lowered into Old Faithful in 1992 to indicate that ------------------.
47- The author probably compares the formation at the mouth of Old Faithful with a volcano because of the formation’s ---------------.
Passage 2:

The term “Ice Age” may give a wrong impression. The epoch that geologists know as the Pleistocene and that spanned the 1.5 to 2.0 million years prior to the current geologic epoch was not one long continuous glaciation, but a period of oscillating climate with ice advances punctuated by times of interglacial climate not very different from the climate experienced now. Ice sheets that derived from an ice cap centered on northern Scandinavia reached southward to central Europe. And beyond the margins of the ice sheets, climatic oscillations (pluvials) contrasted with drier, interpeluvial periods. Although the time involved is so short, about 0.04 percent of the total age of the Earth, the amount of attention devoted to the Pleistocene has been incredibly large, probably because of its immediacy, and because the epoch largely coincides with the appearance on Earth of humans and their immediate ancestors.
There is no reliable way of dating much of the Ice Age. Geological dates are usually obtained by using the rates of decay various radioactive elements found in minerals. Some of these rates are suitable for very old rocks but involve increasing errors when used for young rocks; others are suitable for very young rocks and errors increase rapidly in older rocks. Most of the Ice Age spans a period of time for which no element has an appropriate decay rate.
Nevertheless, researchers of the Pleistocene epoch have developed all sorts of more or less fanciful model schemes of how they would have arranged the Ice Age had they been in charge of events. For example, an early classification Alpine glaciation suggested the existence there of four glaciations, named Gunz, Mindel, Riss, and Wurm. This succession was based primarily on a series of deposits and events not directly related to glacial and interglacial periods, rather than on the more usual modern method of studying biological remains found in interglacial beds themselves interstratified within glacial deposits. Yet this succession was forced willy-nilly onto the glaciated parts of Northern Europe, where there are partial successions of true glacial ground moraines and interglacial deposits, with hopes of ultimately piecing them together to provide a complete Pleistocene succession.
There is no conclusive evidence about the relative length, complexity, and temperatures of the various glacial and interglacial periods. We do not know whether we live in a postglacial period or an interglacial period. The chill truth seems to be that we are already past the optimum climate of the postglacial time. Studies of certain fossil distributions and of the pollen of certain temperate plants suggest decreases of a degree or two in both summer and winter temperatures and, therefore, that we may be in a declining climatic phase leading to glaciation and extinction.

48- In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with -------------------.
49- The “wrong impression” (line 1) to which the author refers is the idea that the --------------.
50- According to the passage, one of the reasons for the deficiencies of the “early classification of Alpine glaciation” is that it was ----------------.
51- Which of the following does the passage imply about the “early classification of Alpine glaciation”?
52- It can be inferred from the passage that an important result of producing an accurate chronology of events of the Pleistocene epoch would be a ----------------.
53- The author refers to deserts primarily in order to ------------------.
54- The author would regard the idea that we are living in an interglacial period as ------------------.
Passage 3:

Elements make up everything in the world. Elements are the basic substances that we cannot divide into simpler substances. We group elements by things they have in common—what they look like, how they react with other substances, if they conduct electricity, etc. we group elements into nine official groups. The element “Hydrogen” is in a group by itself. It is different from all other elements.
Hydrogen is a basic substance. 90% of all atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms are the lightest atoms. Hydrogen got its name from the scientist Lavoisier. Lavoisier noticed that hydrogen atoms are always present in water. The word root “Hydro” means water. Therefore, it was intuitive to represent hydrogen with the letter H.
The second group is the alkaline-earth metals. You can find these elements in the earth’s crust. They react with water. This group of elements contains elements such as Calcium. Calcium is a basic substance found in substances like milk and chalk. It is a member of the second group of elements. Some other members of the second group are beryllium and magnesium.
The third group is the alkali metals. These elements react very strongly with water. They might even explode if they touch water. This group of elements contains elements such as Sodium. Sodium is an element found in table salt. Scientists represent sodium with the letters Na. Some other members of the third group are lithium and potassium.
The fourth group of elements includes metals. It is the largest group of elements. It includes iron, silver, gold, nickel, platinum and titanium. Elements in this group conduct electricity. They are hard and shiny. Members of this group are called the transition metals.
The fifth group of elements is the actinides. The elements in this group are radioactive metals. Most of the members of this group are synthetic elements. They are non-natural elements. They are made in special labs. Some members of this group are uranium and plutonium.
The sixth group of elements is the lanthanides. Some people call this group the rare-earth elements. Some people call them the inner-transition elements. They conduct electricity very well. They tarnish when they come into contact with air.
The seventh group consists of the nonmetals. Carbon is a member of this group. Every living thing depends on carbon. Oxygen is also a member of this group. We take in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide (which is a combination of carbon and oxygen) when we breathe.
The eighth group consists of the inert gases. They are called inert gases because they do not react easily with other substances. Most of these gases are present in lighting. When a current of electricity goes through neon, it glows red. Some other members of this group are argon and xenon. This group is sometimes called Group Zero or Group 0.
The ninth group consists of the poor metals. These metals are different from the metals in the fourth group because these metals are soft. These metals melt easily. They also mix well with other metals to form alloys. Both lead and aluminum are poor metals.
The last group consists of the semi-metals. The members of this group are like metals in some ways. They are also like non-metals in some ways. Some semi-metals are arsenic and bismuth. Depending on which other substances touch them, they can be conductors of electricity or they can insulate substances from electricity. Some scientists call semi-metals “double metal” because of their structure.

55- What did Lavoisier notice about hydrogen?
56- Where is calcium NOT mentioned to be found?
57- What do the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth groups have in common?
58- Why are uranium and plutonium grouped together?
59- Lead and aluminum are grouped together because they do NOT -------------------.
60- The best synonym for “insulate” is ------------------.