Section I: Grammar
Directions: Choose the number of the answer choice that best completes the blank.

1- State refers, ----------, to any self-governing set of people organized so that they deal with others as a unity.
2- ---------- should be viewed as either positive or negative, as in the case of the normative reference group.
3- Sapir contributed significantly to the development of linguistic theory, the concept of the phoneme ----------.
4- Only where market failure occurs ---------- to worry, and even such failure may tend to excessive conservation.
5- ---------- to assess Bateson's unique career and his various contributions to the social sciences.
6- All meteors belong to the solar system ----------.
7- Since the days of Linnaeus a great advance has been made ---------- natural systems of classification.
8- When the blood's tiniest particles ---------- air or any other foreign bodies, they disintegrate.
9- ---------- neck region the spinal cord thickens.
10- Knowing the distance of the food source ---------- unless the direction is indicated.
Section II: Vocabulary
Directions: Choose me number of the answer choice that best completes the blank.

11- The building is ---------- to be built in the first century B.C.
12- There is a long way to ---------- the secrets of genetics.
13- Within minutes, the jury had ---------- that he was guilty.
14- The country is ---------- the worst economic condition since 2001.
15- Several months ---------- before his case was brought to trial.
16- These pictures ---------- the days of the French Revolution.
17- The lawyer ---------- the claim and tried to prove it was false.
18- I finally managed to ---------- the book I wanted in a shop near the university.
19- Although she said her comments were ----------, the newspaper published them anyway.
20- I expect to see you here at eight o'clock ----------.
21- Jane has been ---------- ever since she lost her job.
22- The prisoner stood before the judge with his wife ----------.
23- The man who had lost his family appeared very ---------- despite the stress he was under.
24- The ---------- of the car has been changed making the new model less boxlike.
25- Smokers often feel as though they are being treated as social ---------.
26- Despite the increased profits, the company's shares are still ---------- well below last year's peak.
27- The two cultures were so utterly ---------- that she found it hard to adapt from one to the other.
28- The long ---------- volcano has recently shown signs of life.
29- The Government is now claiming that inflation is on a downward ----------.
30- During his lifetime, this man's ---------- as a social theorist was tremendous.
Section III: Cloze Test
Directions: Read the following passage and decide which choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) best fits each space. Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.

A specific state is defined necessarily with respect both to a territory and a population which occupies it, and which (31) ---------- the society of which the state is the emanation. In a state, political power is (32) ---------- by a dominant, specialized, and numerically minority group, which (33) ---------- of the means of military force that is used for wars outside and for (34) --------- within. Born in violence, the power of the state can perpetuate itself only by inducting a social (35) ----------; at the very moment that it (36) ----------- political power for its own profit, the dominant group is (37) ---------- to elaborate, for the society at large, an ideology which legitimates it, which serves to establish a contractual (38) ---------- associating the state and the society. The appearance of the state marks a radical (39) ---------- in the history of the society, from the point of view of spatial organization, the internal (40) ---------- of the society, and the control of economic and social relations. The most evident consequence of these changes is a shift in the scale of the frame of reference of social life.

Section IV: Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following passages and choose the number of the choice that best answers each question. Then mark your answer on your answer sheet.


Natural selection is the only known theory that can account for the existence in nature of adaptation. However, that does not mean that natural selection is the driving force of all evolution, because not all evolutionary change is necessarily adaptive. At the molecular level, in particular, there is growing support for the idea that most evolutionary change is actually neutral. This "neutral theory of evolution" has been most effectively championed by the distinguished Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura. The neutral theory does not state that genes are doing nothing useful. Rather, it suggests that different forms of the same gene are indistinguishable in their effects. Therefore, a mutation from one form of the gene to another is neutral in that the change has no effect upon the phenotype. The most obvious example is synonymous mutation. The final phenotypic expression of two forms of the gene can therefore be identical, and mutation from one form to the other is again neutral. Kimura and his colleagues point to evidence that the majority of gene substitutions in nature are neutral. It is, in their view, the main cause of genetic variation in wild populations.
The neutral theory is sometimes portrayed as anti-Darwinian, but this is very misleading. Neutral mutations are equivalent to changes in typeface from, for example, Times Roman to Baskerville Light: the meaning of the sentences written is unchanged. Darwinian selection judges genes by their phenotypic expression—by the meaning of the sentences. If a mutation has literally no effect on the phenotype—it is purely a change of typeface—natural selection will obviously be indifferent to it. The neutral theory says nothing, one way or the other, about the importance of Darwinian natural selection at the level of phenotypes.
The neutral theory was hotly disputed when first proposed in the late 1960s, perhaps partly because it was wrongly perceived—and even wrongly oversold—as anti-Darwinian. Since that time it has gained ground and is now widely supported. One interesting consequence of it is the idea of a "molecular generic clock". If most gene substitutions are neutral, the rate of substitution is expected to be roughly constant at any particular genetic locus. On this assumption, the time at which the common ancestor or any pair or species lived can be calculated from the number of amino acid differences between the two species. At first, such times may be measured in arbitrary units, but they can be calibrated in millions of years for any given gene, using lineages where the fossil record happens to be rich. It is from evidence of this kind that the branch points mentioned above for human and ape lineages have been dated.
Natural selection chooses the "fittest" but the fittest what? For Darwin the answer was clear: the fittest individual organisms. Fitness, for Darwin, meant whatever qualities assisted an organism to survive and reproduce. Components of fitness were qualities such as fat-running legs, keen eyes, and abundant, high quality milk. "Fitness" later became a technical term used by mathematical geneticists to mean "whatever is favored by natural selection". As a trivial consequence of this, it became possible to argue that "survival of the fittest" is a tautology.
Notwithstanding Darwin's emphasis on individual survival and reproduction, other evolutionists have sometimes thought of natural selection as choosing among larger units: groups of individuals, or species. Restraint in aggression, for instance, has been explained as resulting from natural selection between species: those species whose individual members tore each other limb from limb became extinct. At least in this simple, naive form, such "group selectionism" is now discredited. The 1960s and 1970s saw a reversion among theorists, away from group selectionism, back to the Nee-Darwinian rigor of the 1930s. Evolutionary change comes about through gene substitutions in gene pools and these ordinarily result from differences in genetic effects on individual survival and reproduction. Subtle and indirect ways in which genes might influence their survival were also recognized. For example, worker ants are sterile, but they can still affect the representation of copies of their genes in the gene pool, by favoring the reproduction of their close relatives, such as their reproductive sisters. In a notable theoretical advance, W.D. Hamilton proposed "inclusive fitness" as a generalization of "Darwinian fitness" which took account of such indirect kinship effects. The phrase "kin selection" is helpfully used to distinguish this important theory from the discredited "group selection" which it superficially, and misleadingly, sometimes seems to resemble.

41- The neutral theory ----------.
42- Fitness can be described as ---------.
43- In order NOT to become extinct, ---------.
44- The purpose of the text is to ---------.
45- What does "mutation" in paragraph 2 mean?
46- What does "it" in line 22 refer to?
47- What does "it" in the last line refer to?

Waste, rubbish or materials can be explained as the things that are not needed and are economically unusable without further processing. It may be in liquid, gas, or solid form and originate from a wide range of human operations, such as industry, commerce, transport, agriculture, medicine, and domestic activities. Waste may be classified in many different ways, such as according to its origin (for example, domestic, industrial, commercial, clinical, construction, nuclear, agricultural) or its properties (for example, inert, toxic, inflammable). Without suitable treatment such waste becomes a source of pollution of the environment at large, and leading to air pollution (such as acid rain or traffic pollution), water pollution, and oil pollution.
The amount of waste produced by human activities is increasing in most parts of the world, accompanied by problems of disposal. In developing countries waste-disposal facilities are minimal, but extensive quantities are diverted for recycling. Waste disposal operations in the developed world are becoming increasingly sophisticated with specialist companies and facilities. The United Kingdom produces 500 million tones of waste per year, this consisting of mineral (27 per cent), agricultural (40 per cent), industrial (20 per cent), and municipal (4 per cent) wastes, dirt mud (7 per cent), and searched spoil (2 per cent). Most UK solid waste disposal is done through landfill in 4,000 licensed sites. Suitable locations for landfill are becoming increasingly difficult to find and disposal of waste by this method has potential environmental problems, such as leakage of toxins into groundwater and generation of explosive methane gas (which may also contribute to the greenhouse effect). Explosive wastes can be burned, but the process is expensive, may result in air pollution, and has a low level of public acceptability. Highly specialized incinerators are used to burn hazardous wastes and eliminate their toxic properties; they produce a solid remainder that is landfilled, but the volume is much reduced and it is unmoving. Sewage disposal in the United Kingdom used to see much dirt mud being dumped at sea, but in 1998 this was banned, and anaerobic digestion (in which waste decomposes in an enclose chamber) and burning are now the common alternatives. Certain wastes represent special hazards and require appropriate treatment, for example, clinical waste, which may be polluted with pathogens, and nuclear waste for which highly engineered burial facilities are required.
Many countries are now adopting policies to encourage waste minimization, which consists of a hierarchy of management options ranging from termination of waste production (the most favored), reuse, recycling, combustion for fuel and disposal by landfill, and so on, to burning (the least favored). In order to encourage waste minimization the UK government introduced a tax in 1996 of £7 per tone on landfill for many wastes (£7 per tone for chemically inert waste). Together with other strategies, such as encouragement of recycling centers and domestic composting of organic matter, it is likely that there will be an important move away from traditional waste-disposal practices. Indeed, the UK government has set a target for 2015 by when 33 per cent of household waste will be recycled. Finally, these measures will hopefully put an end to this alarming condition.

48- Which of the following is the most appropriate topic for the text?
49- What makes wastes dangerous for human beings and environment?
50- According to the text, which of the following waste doesn't have to get a special treatment while terminating?
51- Why do most countries try to stay away from burning method in termination of wastes?
52- Which of the following is NOT true according to the text?
53- Who or what does "it" in line 22 refer to?

Historical studies have indicated that family structure has been less changed by urbanization and industrialization than was once supposed. As far as is known, the nuclear family was the most customary pre-industrial unit and is still the basic unit of social organization in most modern industrial societies. The modern family differs from earlier traditional forms, however, in its functions, composition, and life cycle, and in the roles of mothers and fathers.
The only function of the family that continues to survive all change is the provision of affection and emotional support by and to all its members, particularly infants and young children. Specialized institutions now perform many of the other function that were once performed by the rural family: economic production, education, religious schooling, and recreation. Employment is usually separate from the family group; family members often work in different occupations and in locations away from the home. Education is provided by the state or by private groups. Religious training and recreational activities are available outside the home, although both still have a place in family life. The family is still responsible for the socialization of children, but even in this capacity, the influence of peers and of the mass media has assumed a larger role.
Family composition in industrial societies has changed dramatically since the start of the Industrial Revolution. The number of years separating the births of the youngest and oldest children has declined. This has occurred in conjunction with increased long longevity. In earlier times, marriage normally dissolved through the death of a spouse before the youngest child left home. Today, husbands and wives potentially have about as many years together after the children leave home as before. The proportion of traditional nuclear family households in the United Kingdom, comprising a couple with one or more dependent children, fell from a third in 1971 to just under a quarter in spring 2002.
During the 20th century, extended family households declined in popularity in the West. This change is associated particularly with increased residential mobility and with diminished financial responsibility of children for ageing parents, as pensions from jobs and government-sponsored benefits for retired people became more common.
By the 1970s the prototypical nuclear family had yielded somewhat to modified structures including the single-parent family, the stepfamily, and the family without children. One-parent families in the past were usually the result of the death of a partner or a spouse. Now, however, most one-parent families are the result of divorce, although some are created when unmarried mothers bear children. Between 1971 and 1991 the proportion of lone-parent households with dependent children doubled, from 3 to 6 per cent. The proportion remained at around this level in 2002. At the end of the 20th century, a total of around 3 million children-nearly a quarter of children-lived in a single-parent family. Almost one in five dependent children live in lone-mother families, while lone-father families accounted for around 2 per cent of all families with dependent children in 2000.
Families without children may be increasingly the result of deliberate choice on the part of the partners or spouses and facilitated by the wider availability of birth control. For many years the proportion of couples who were childless declined steadily as cures for diseases that cause infertility were discovered. In the 1970s, however, the changes in the status of women reversed this trend. Couples particularly in the West now often elect to have no children or to postpone having them until their careers are well established.

54- Which of the following best summarizes the topic of the text?
55- As it can be inferred from the text, why is the modern family different from the traditional form?
56- Nowadays couples live together for longer years than before after their youngest child leaves home because ----------.
57- What is the most significant factor that prevents a couple from having a child in recent decades?
58- Which of the following is NOT true according to the text?
59- What does "longevity" in paragraph 3 mean?
60- What or who does "both" in paragraph 2 refer to?